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            淺談如何提高電力系統穩定性

              電力系統在運行中失去穩定性是電力系統最嚴重的事故。為此,在電力系統的設計和運行中,當經過計算后發現系統的穩定程度不夠高。就應該采取技術措施,保證電力系統的安全穩定運行。另外,一旦系統失去穩定,則應采取相應的措施,限制事故范圍,減小由此帶來的損失,并盡快恢復系統的正常運行。

              電力系統穩定性分析應從靜態穩定和暫態穩定兩方面來進行。一般來說,靜態穩定程度高的系統,暫態穩定性也要高一些。靜態穩定性是指系統正常運行方式下維持其自身穩定的能力,一個系統在正常運行方式時都不能完全保持其穩定性,就更難保障受到大的干擾之后的穩定性即暫態穩定。所以為了提高系統靜態穩定性,必須采取帶有根本性的措施,即增加系統穩定儲備,縮小電氣距離。對于暫態穩定性來說,因為是考慮系統受到大的干擾后的穩定性,所以保持系統暫態穩定性比保持系統靜態穩定性更難,措施相應多一些。

              我們分別從這兩方面就提高電力系統的穩定的措施展開討論。

              一、提高靜態穩定性的措施

              電力系統靜態穩定性是指電力系統受到某種微小的擾動且擾動消失后,不發生自激振蕩后或非同期失步。自動恢復到原來運行狀態的能力。

              下面由簡單系統功—角特性方程式可知,在傳輸功率一定的情況下,發電機可能的極限功率愈大,則靜穩定極限也愈高,相應的靜態穩定性能就愈好。而要提高靜穩定極限則可以提高電源電勢和受端電壓。減小電抗。提高電源電勢和系統電壓,首先要求系統和發電機有足夠的無功電源;而要減小電抗,就要增大電源容量。同時縮短發電機和系統之間的“電氣距離”。

              1、發電機采用自動調節勵磁裝置

              當發電機不采用自動調節勵磁裝置時,空載電勢Eq為常數,發電機的電抗為同步電抗Xd。當采用了自動調節勵磁裝置以后,發電機可以做到Eq’或者是Vg為常數。而Eq’為常數意味著Xd減小為Xd’,而Vg為常數則意味著Xd將對系統穩定性不起作用。因此,發電機裝設先進的自動調節勵磁裝置就相當于縮短了發電機和系統之間的“電氣距離”。由于裝設自動調節勵磁裝置價格低廉,效果明顯,是提高靜態穩定性的首選措施。

              2、 減小線路電抗

              減小線路電抗,加強系統之間的聯系,可以提高靜穩定極限,提高穩定程度。直接減小線路電抗可采用以下方法:1)、用電纜代替架空線;2)、采用擴徑導線;3)、采用分裂導線。前面兩種方法因投資過高或其他技術問題,尚難普遍實現。所以,直接減小線路電抗的方法主要是采用分裂導線。例如對于500kV架空線路,當采用單根導線時電抗大約為0.43Ω/km;采用三分裂導線時約為0.3Ω/km;電抗值下降了三分之一。因此,220kV及以上系統多采用分裂導線。

              3、 提高線路額定電壓等級

              從功—角特性方程可看出,提高線路額定電壓等級,可提高靜穩定極限,提高靜態穩定的水平。但提高電壓等級需要增加投資,尤其需要系統有足夠的無功電源。

              4、 采用串聯電容器補償

              串聯電容器補償可由于調壓,也可以通過減少線路電抗來提高電力系統靜態穩定性。在后一種情況下,應通過計算決定其補償度。一般來說,補補償度愈大,線路等效電抗愈小,對于提高穩定性有利。但補償度過大時將出現一系列的問題:造成阻尼功率系數D為負,引起系統自發性低頻振蕩,容易是發電機產生自勵磁,給繼電保護運行造成困難,增大短路電流等。考慮以上因素,用于提高穩定性的串聯電容器補償的補償度一般應小于0.5.

              串聯電容器補償一般采用集中補償。對于雙電源線路裝于中點,對于單電源線路裝于末端。

              5、 改善系統結構

              改善系統結構,加強系統聯系,可以提高電力系統穩定性。其方法有:1)、增加輸電線路回路,減小線路電抗;2)、加強線路兩端各自系統的內部聯系,減小系統等效內抗;3)、接入中間電力系統,這樣可將長距離輸電線中間的電壓維持恒定,相當于將輸電線路分段,從而也減小了電抗;4)、在輸電線路中間的降壓變壓器裝設同期調相機,且同期調相機配有先進的自動調節勵磁裝置,可以維持其端電壓,甚至變電站高壓母線電壓為恒定。這樣,也相當于長距離輸電線路的分段,減小了線路電抗。

              二、提高暫態穩定性的措施

              電力系統提高暫態穩定性是指系統在某個運行情況下,突然受到大的干擾后,能否經過暫態過程達到新的穩定運行狀態或者恢復到原來的狀態。但因運行的系統受到急劇的干擾后,將使發電機電勵磁率和機械功率之間出現大的差額,這是導致系統暫態穩定破壞的主要原因。因此,提高暫態穩定性的措施,首先考慮縮短不平衡功率作用的時間,減小功率差額的臨時性措施。

              1、 快速切出故障

              發生故障后造成轉子軸上的功率差額即不平衡功率,將使轉子加速,根據等面積定則,要使系統獲得暫態穩定性,必須盡量減小加速面積,增大減速面積。這樣才有可能使被加速了的轉子回到同步速度,使系統恢復正常同步運行。而要減小加速面積,最直接的辦法就是快速切除故障。快速切除故障的另一個積極作用是可以使電動機端電壓迅速回升,減小了電動機失速停轉的危險,提高了負荷運行的穩定性。為了實現快速切除故障,必須選用快速動作的繼電保護裝置和快速動作的斷路器。

              2、 采用重合閘裝置

              電力系統特別是高壓輸電線路的故障,大多數是瞬時性故障而不是永久性故障。采用自動重合閘裝置,就是當故障發生而斷路器將故障線路斷開之后,經過一定時間由自動重合閘裝置將使線路再次投入運行。若故障的線路是瞬時性的,則當斷路器重合后系統可能就此又恢復正常運行。這不僅提高了供電可靠性,而且對系統暫態穩定也是有利的,重合閘動作愈快對穩定愈有利,但是重合閘的動作時間受到短路處去游離時間的限制。一般短路點往往會出現電弧,如果重合過快,則產生電弧的短路點,可能因去游離不夠而使電弧重燃,使重合閘不成功,甚至使故障擴大。特別是單相重合閘,由于故障相與兩正常相的相間電容和互感而產生的潛供電流維持了電弧的燃燒,使去游離時間加長。重合閘不成功對暫態穩定是很不利的,這相當于在很短的時間內又給了系統一個大的沖擊。同時增加了斷路器的負擔,在實際使用中應引起注意。重合閘不成功增大了加速面積而使系統失去暫態穩定的情形,一般應采取措施避免出現這種結果。

              3、 強行勵磁

              當由于外部短路而使發電機端電壓降低,從而使其輸出的電磁功率減小時,可以采用強勵磁裝置以增加其電磁功率輸出,減小轉子的不平衡功率。一般的發電機自動調節勵磁系統都具有強行勵磁裝置。當機端電壓Vg低于額定電壓的85%時,低電壓繼電器動作,并通過中間繼電器將勵磁裝置的調節電阻強行短接,使勵磁機的勵磁電流大大增加。從而使得發電機的勵磁電流,勵磁電壓都迅速增大,以提高發電機電勢,增加電磁功率輸出。從而減少轉子的不平衡功率,以達到提高暫態穩定性的目的。

              4、 變壓器中性點經小電阻接地

              當在中性點接地的電力系統中發生不對稱接地短路時,將產生零序電流分量。若此時在系統中星形接線的變壓器中性點經小電阻接地,則零序電流流過時將在這一電阻中產生功率損耗。這種功率損耗可以減少轉子的不平衡功率,有利于系統的暫態穩定。同時接入小接地電阻,反映在正序增廣網絡中,相當于加大了附加阻抗,減少了系統聯系阻抗,也提高了電磁功率。接地電阻的大小和安裝地點應通過計算來確定,一般接地電阻值大約與變壓器的短路電抗值接近。

              5、 減少原動機輸出的機械功率

              當故障使電磁功率減少時,如能減少原動機輸出的機械功率,則可以減少作用在轉子上的剩余功率,提高其暫態穩定性。減少原動機輸出的機械功率措施有:1)、對于汽輪機可以采用快速的自動調速系統或者快速關閉進氣門;2)、連鎖切機,即在切除故障的同時,連鎖切除送端發電廠中的一臺或幾臺發電機組;3)、采用機械制動即對轉子直接制動的方法,利用這種方法減小功率差額,從而提高電力系統運行的暫態穩定性。

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